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Select values in criteria query - select, multiselect, tuple query

Criteria API is one of the many features provided by JPA to create a programmatic Object graph model for queries. I have written a detailed post about building criteria Queries, Criteria Query Join between entities and using aggregate methods. You can check out the tutorial about writing criteria queries in JPA.

To get started, let’s analyze the selection of a basic SQL SELECT query.

    
    1: select * from STUDENT;

    2: select ID, NAME from STUDENT;

    3: select count(ID) from STUDENT;

    4:    SELECT s.NAME, a.CITY, a.ZIP_CODE
        FROM STUDENT s
        INNER JOIN ADDRESS a
        ON s.ID = a.STUDENT_ID;
  1. Query (1) uses the * wild card to select all the column values from the table.
  2. Query (2) uses a more specific selection by selecting only the ID and NAME column values from the table.
  3. Query (3) uses an aggregate function count in the selection.
  4. Query (4) selects the columns of different tables by joining the two tables.

The purpose of showing the above example is to have a rough idea of how the selection works in the SQL queries. Criteria Queries in JPA include various methods to select single entity, single value, multiple values from same entity or different entities and aggregate functions.

 

JPA Criteria API provides the following options for the selection of values.

  1. CriteriaQuery.select method.
  2. CriteriaQuery.multiselect method.
  3. creating a CriteriaQuery which returns a tuple.

 

We will discuss the implementation of each method. The domain model will remain same as in the previous post.

CriteriaQuery.select

This method takes one Selection item as a parameter. The parameter specifies the result returned by the Criteria Query. The select method can be used to select a single entity or a single value.

Let’s select a student on the basis of its identifier (ID column).

    /** create  a Criteria Builder **/
    CriteriaBuilder builder = em.getCriteriaBuilder();
    /** create a CriteriaQuery which returns student Objects **/
    CriteriaQuery<Student> cq = builder.createQuery(Student.class);
    /** fetch the Student Entity **/
    Root<Student> student = cq.from(Student.class);
    /** select the Student entity**/
    cq.select(student);
    /** add a restriction to fetch only student with ID= 1003 **/
    cq.where(builder.equal(student.get("id"), 10003L));
    /** fetch the student result **/
    Student studentResult = em.createQuery(cq).getSingleResult();

The above example fetches a student Entity.

  • We build a Criteria query by calling CriteriaBuilder.createQuery method.
  • The Root instance returned from the CriteriaQuery.from method references the type of the entity provided in the parameter. In this case, it is the Student entity.
  • The select method takes the root as the parameter

 

In order to return a single value from the criteria query for each row, we have to provide a Path instance which refers to the attribute to be selected.

    Path<String> namePath = student.get("name");
    cq.select(namePath);

The Select method accepts the parameter of type Selection. The Path interface is a child interface of Selection which makes Path instance an ideal candidate for the parameter.

In the previous post related to writing criteria queries in JPA, I have explained the inheritance tree of various interfaces.

   

Aggregate Operation — If an aggregate method is used in selection, the return type of the criteria query result would be the same as the return type of the aggregate method. For example, if we use count, the query type should be Long.

    CriteriaQuery<Long> cq = builder.createQuery(Long.class);
    Root<Student> root = cq.from(Student.class);
    cq.select(builder.count(root));
    Long resultList = em.createQuery(cq).getSingleResult();

   

Fetching Relationships — In case of the relationships such as OneToMany, OneToOne or ManyToMany, the output query results in an implicit join operation. I have updated the above query to fetch all the addresses of a given student.

    CriteriaQuery<Address> cq = builder.createQuery(Address.class);
    Root<Student> student = cq.from(Student.class);
    Path<Address> addressPath = student.get("addresses");
    cq.select(addressPath);
    cq.where(builder.equal(student.get("id"), 10003L));
    List<Address> resultList = em.createQuery(cq).getResultList();

Below is the output query for the reference.

    select
        addresses1_.id as id1_0_,
        addresses1_.city_code as city_cod2_0_,
        addresses1_.city_lang as city_lan3_0_,
        addresses1_.city_name as city_nam4_0_,
        addresses1_.country as country5_0_,
        addresses1_.house_number as house_nu6_0_,
        addresses1_.street as street7_0_,
        addresses1_.student_id as student_9_0_,
        addresses1_.zip_code as zip_code8_0_ 
    from
        student student0_ 
    inner join
        address addresses1_ 
            on student0_.id=addresses1_.student_id 
    where
        student0_.id=10003

   

Until now we implemented the criteria query to select an Entity or a single value. However, It is not ideal to fetch a complete entity if only a few values are required. Criteria API provides many ways to accomplish that.

CriteriaQuery.multiselect

This method takes one or more Selection items as parameters. The parameters specify the result returned by the Criteria Query. The multiselect method can be used to select a single entity, single or multiple values of the same entity or of different entities.

There are a few things to be noted before we move on to the examples.

  • If the criteria query is of the array type i.e CriteriaQuery<T[]> where T represents a data type. The elements of the array will correspond to the arguments of the multiselect method in the specified order for each row.

  • If the criteria query is of the Type CriteriaQuery<T> where T is a user-defined class. The arguments to the multiselect method will be passed to one of the constructors of the class T and an object of the type T will be returned for each row. In case the matching constructor is not found, an exception will be thrown.

  • If an only single argument is provided to multiselect method and no type is mentioned, the instance of the type Object is returned. In case of more than one arguments, an instance of type Object[] will be instantiated and returned for each row. The elements of the array will correspond to the arguments to the multiselect method, in the specified order.

Let’s see some examples —

    CriteriaBuilder builder = em.getCriteriaBuilder();
    CriteriaQuery<Student> cq = builder.createQuery(Student.class);
    Root<Student> root = cq.from(Student.class);
    cq.multiselect(root.get("id"),root.get("name"));
    List<Student> resultList = em.createQuery(cq).getResultList();

In the above example, The arguments to multiselect method expect a constructor from the Student class. It should have the similar signature as the order of the arguments such as

 public Student(Long id, String name) {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
    }

If the constructor is not present, It will throw an exception.

It might not always be possible to go ahead and add a new constructor in an existing class. To avoid that, we can create the criteria query of the Array type.

    CriteriaBuilder builder = em.getCriteriaBuilder();
    CriteriaQuery<Object[]> cq = builder.createQuery(Object[].class);
    Root<Student> root = cq.from(Student.class);
    cq.multiselect(root.get("id"),root.get("name"));
    List<Object[]> resultList = em.createQuery(cq).getResultList();

As explained earlier, each argument would take a specific position in the array, based on the order. In this case, ID would be the first item in array and name would be second. let’s print the values returned for each row.

    resultList.forEach(s -> log.info(" result row = {} - {}", s[0],s[1] ));

   

Tuple Criteria Queries

The Tuple is an interface which represents the key-value pairs of data for each row. The Tuple acts as a container for the data. A typical Tuple implementation contains

  • an array of Objects i.e Object[]
  • Various get methods to fetch the values based Index or Alias of the arguments.

Similar to other data types, criteria query can return a list of Tuple objects or a single Tuple object.

The following example shows how to fetch more than one value using a tuple criteria query.

    /** create a tuple Query **/
    CriteriaQuery<Tuple> cq = builder.createTupleQuery();
    Root<Student> root = cq.from(Student.class);
    /** the name of the path also acts as an alias **/
    Path<String> namePath = root.get("name");
    Path<Long> idPath = root.get("id");
    cq.multiselect(idPath , namePath);
    /** Query returns list of Tuple objects **/
    List<Tuple> resultList = em.createQuery(cq).getResultList();

The createTupleQuery method returns a criteria query of the type Tuple. The result contains either a Tuple object or List of the Objects. We can fetch the values using either index or the alias.

/** fetch the values from result based on index **/
resultList.forEach(row -> 
                log.info("sdk {} -> {}", row.get(0), row.get(1) ));
/** fetch the values from result based on the alias **/
resultList.forEach(row ->
                 log.info("sdk {} -> {}", row.get(idPath), row.get(namePath) ));

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